Hi there! If you‘re reading this, you probably want to level up your Docker networking skills. Well, you‘ve come to the right place!
My name is Clara and I‘ve been working with containers for over 5 years now. As a DevOps engineer, I‘ve helped dozens of companies adopt Docker and troubleshot all kinds of networking issues.
In this guide, I‘ll break down everything you need to know about Docker networking. I‘ll explain how it works under the hood, when you‘d use different network drivers, how to create your own networks, industry best practices, and how to fix connectivity problems.
Get your coffee ready, because this is going to be a long but exciting deep dive!
An Overview of Docker Networking
But first – what exactly is Docker networking?
Simply put, it‘s how containers communicate with each other and the outside world. Docker gives each container a virtual network interface to send and receive data.
The Container Network Model (CNM) defines Docker‘s networking architecture. It has three core components:
Sandbox: Isolates the network stack of each container. Prevents containers from modifying the host network stack.
Endpoint: A virtual network interface that lives inside a sandbox. One endpoint connects to the container, the other to a Docker network.
Network: A group of endpoints that can communicate directly. Containers connected to the same Docker network can talk to each other.
Here‘s a diagram to visualize how sandboxes, endpoints, and networks interrelate:
Docker networks provide the foundation for container communication. Now let‘s look at the different network drivers available.
Network Drivers: Your Connectivity Options
Network drivers are Docker plugins that implement a network. Different drivers provide different capabilities.
The key drivers you need to know are:
This is the default network driver in Docker. Each container on a bridge network is assigned an IP address, and containers can communicate via IP addresses and exposed ports.
Bridge networks are useful when you need simple isolated communication between containers. They provide automatic DNS resolution by container name.
Some downsides are there‘s limited customization and only containers on the same network can communicate.
This adds containers directly onto the host‘s network, rather than isolating them. Containers on a host network do not get their own IP – they use the host‘s IP and interfaces directly.
Host networks are useful when you want total visibility into the container‘s network traffic. But it also offers less isolation and security. I‘d only recommend using host networks in specific cases like collecting Docker logs.
These allow containers across multiple hosts to communicate. Overlay networks require an external key-value store to track state and manage communications.
Overlay driver is great for large-scale clustered applications like Kubernetes. But it‘s overkill for standalone Docker hosts.
Some popular overlay network plugins are Weave, Flannel and Calico.
Macvlan networks assign a MAC address to each container, making it appear like a physical device on the network. This allows you to put containers directly onto physical networks and assign them routable IP addresses.
Macvlan is useful when you need your containers to look like physical hosts. But it can be harder to set up and troubleshoot.
There are several other Docker network drivers available like IPvlan, VXLAN, and more. But I find that bridge, overlay, and macvlan cover most use cases.
Now let‘s go over how to create your own user-defined networks!
Creating Your Own Docker Networks
The default networks like bridge and host may not always meet your needs. Often you‘ll want to create your own networks that are customized for your apps and environments.
Here are some common reasons to create user-defined networks:
- Isolate services or tiers of your app stack into separate networks
- Set custom IP address ranges and subnets
- Use network-based service discovery instead of static IPs
- Apply network-specific security policies and firewall rules
- Create test networks for development workflows
You can create a network by providing a name and selecting a driver:
docker network create --driver bridge my-network
After creating it, start containers and connect them to your network:
docker run -d --name nginx --network my-network nginx docker run -d --name redis --network my-network redis
Now nginx and redis will be isolated on
my-network and able to communicate!
You can inspect a network to view info about the driver, IPAM settings, connected containers, and more:
docker network inspect my-network
And that‘s the basics of creating and using your own Docker networks! They provide essential isolation and inter-communication for services.
Next I‘ll share some best practices and design patterns for networking containers.
Networking Best Practices and Tips
Based on my experience managing container networks, here are some tips:
Name networks descriptively – Clearly denote dev vs. staging vs. prod networks. Helps avoid confusion down the road.
Use multiple networks to segment services – Don‘t cram everything onto one big network. Isolate front-end, back-end, databases into separate networks.
Limit inter-network connections – Only expose necessary connections between networks to reduce security risks.
Prefer networks over links – Links are legacy ways to connect containers. Networks provide DNS discovery and flexibility.
Use host networks sparingly – They have limited security and control. I‘d avoid except for special cases like scrapers.
Monitor network traffic – Watch for anomalous spikes in traffic between containers which could indicate issues.
Leverage third-party network plugins – Tools like Weave and Calico add extra capabilities on top of Docker native networking.
Sticking to these best practices will provide the right foundation for stable and secure container networking in production.
Some real-world examples of how custom networks are used:
- Segregating frontend, backend, databases into separate networks
- Having isolated networks for development vs. staging vs. production
- Using host network for a log collection agent that ships logs to a central server
Think about network isolation requirements in your environment and how custom networks could enable that.
Next I‘ll go over some troubleshooting tips for any network connectivity issues between containers.
Troubleshooting Docker Networking Issues
Networking problems can crop up when configuring container connectivity. Here are some debugging tips that I‘ve found helpful:
1. Check container network configuration
Inspect networks and containers to verify they are attached to the same network:
docker network inspect mynet docker container inspect mycontainer
2. Verify port publishing
Make sure any required ports are published properly on the Docker host:
docker container port mycontainer
3. Check network security rules
Things like host firewalls, security groups, or vpc subnet rules could block connectivity.
4. Try attaching containers to default bridge network
See if communication works on the default bridge network as a baseline test.
5. Look at Docker logs for errors
Logs may have clues like networking driver failures or misconfigurations.
6. Test network connectivity without containers
Eliminate application code as the issue by using curl or ping between hosts directly.
7. Recreate problematic user-defined networks
Scratch any custom networks and recreate to resolve potential issues.
With some diligent troubleshooting following these tips, you can get to the bottom of any pesky container networking issues.
Alright, we covered a TON of ground here! We looked at:
The Docker Container Network Model architecture
Different network drivers and when to use them
How to create your own user-defined networks
Networking best practices and design patterns
Troubleshooting connectivity issues between containers
I hope this guide gave you a comprehensive overview of Docker networking. Let me know if you have any other questions!
Now you should have a solid grasp of container networking concepts and be able to implement networking configurations for your Docker applications.
Wishing you the best on your container networking journey!